Religion in the XIX century
On April, 11, 1830 under the arch-bishop Filaret (Amfiteatrov) (1828-1836), who later became Kiev metropolitan, there was founded a special foreign mission. In 1847 there was opened Interpreter’s Committee attached to the Kazan Theological Academy, and in 1854 there appeared three missionary departments. In order to support missionary education, on October, 4, 1867 there was founded St.Guriy’s Orthodox congregation. In this period lived and worked a famous missionary and interpreter, “Apostle of Kazan foreigners” N.I.Ilminsky. Thanks to his efforts there were founded the Central school for christened Tatars (1864) and Foreigners’ Seminary (1872).
In the time of the arch-bishop Grigory (Postnikov) (1848-1856) the funds of the Kazan Theological Academy were enriched by the books from the ancient library of Solovetsky Monastery; in 1851 there was founded “Orthodox Interlocutor”, which joined together a galaxy of famous scientists: the historians E.A.Budrin, F.A.Kurganov, A.A.Tsarevsky, P.A.Yungerov, L.I.Pisarev, V.A.Krensky, A.P.Shapov, jurist I.S.Berdnikov, ethnographers, orientalists and missionaries N.F.Katanov, M.A.Mashanov, N.I.Ilminsky, archpriest Efimiy Malov, philosopher V.I.Nesmelov and others. The newspaper “Proceedings of the Kazan bishopric” existed since 1867 till 1919, “Church and Social Life” - since 1905 till 1917. Under the bishop Antony (Khrapovetsky), the future first hierarch of the Russian Orthodox Church abroad (1805 – 1900), the theological education reached its fullest flower. Besides the above-named magazines, in Kazan in different periods were published: weekly “Church and Social Life”, “Missionary anti-Moslem Collection”, “Missionary Review”.
In 1909 in the Kazan bishopric there were 1546844 Orthodox believers, 18 cathedrals, 636 parish churches, 37 home churches, and together with cloister temples the number of churches reached 739. All in all there were 336 chapels. As for clergy, there were: 33 archpriests, 770 priests, 279 deacons, 770 psalm-readers; 609 parish guardianships, 7 parochial schools with 2 classrooms and 470 ones with a single classroom, 225 schools of reading and writing; 27983 students received education at various church schools. There were 5 monasteries and 2 nunneries in Kazan.
One of the currents of the national movement that came to life in the second half of the XIX century was Dzhadidism – the movement of Islam renovation. In this period there appeared such medrese as “Muhammadiya”, “Galiya”, “Khusainiya” and some others; all of them used new methods of teaching. Kazan at that time was the center of missionary work of the Orthodox Church in the Volga region. However in one of the reports of 1908 sent to the Main press board it was mentioned: “Kazan with its 13 medrese, Tatar newspapers, magazines, book-shops, print-houses and developed book-printing is the enlightenment center for Moslems of all parts of Russia. The Tatars of the Volga region expect Kazan to solve or cover numerous problems and questions of their cultural and religious life”. The development of the national theatrical art was closely connected with the activity of the first Tatar companies “Saiyar”, “Nur”, “Shirvat” and “Yashlek”.