Architecture of the period of the city rise
Once an ancient settlement, the city grew and developed. Its functions changed as well. On territory of the Kremlin garden in 1977-1978 A.H.Khalikov found the remains of the earth rampart that was about 12 meters wide and 2 meters high. On top of this rampart there were walls of white stone about 4.5 meters wide; and in front of it there was a ditch (about 14 meters wide and 5 meters deep). At first these remains were found in the southern part of the Kremlin only, but already in 1990-s such remains were found all around the Kremlin hill; thus all the data on this subject were specified and enriched. In the north-east part of the city there obviously were the gates in form of a tower, and a system of ramparts and wooden walls. All there fortifications surrounded the total area of 5 hectares. Such facts let the scientist believe that the Kazan of the XII-XIII centuries was a strong fortress and important commercial and economic center in the north-western parts of the Volga region. Upon the whole scientists believe that architecture of Kazan reached a very high level. Public constructions, mosques and other buildings were richly decorated with tiled bricks and slabs, stone carving. Very often ceilings were decorated with mosaics. Bulgar bath-houses were real masterpieces of their architecture. Famous Kazan researcher Niyaz Khalit wrote that the history of Moslem religious architecture began long before people of Kazan became Moslems, and by the rise of Kazan it had been 200 years old. Perhaps by this time the architecture had acquired typical peculiarities of its ancestors – architectural schools of Khorezm and Baghdad caliphate. The architecture of mosques in ethnic centers of Bulgars should have become the leading, hail growing one. The same can be said about Kazan – it is proved by rich Moslem burials of noble Bulgars, which were found both within and outside the city. Sadly, non of these constructions survived till nowadays.