One of the consequences of the fact that Islam became the official religion of the Volga Bulgary was junction of Bulgars to the Moslem culture, which was the most progressive culture of the Oriental world of this period. It stimulated the development of education, literature and science. At first the Bulgars used runic alphabet for writing, but later runes were replaces by written language based on Arabic alphabet. Lots of samples of Bulgars’s writing in Arabic became real masterpieces of calligraphy. People used for writing not only birch bark and boards but paper that was brought from Samarkand.
It took long to make a hand-written book, thus they were very expensive. People were taught the basic laws of Islam and to write in Arabic at mectebs (schools). Higher education could be received only with the help of scientists from Middle Asia. Bulgars were good at mathematics, astronomy, chemistry, medicine and geography.
The names of Bulgar people such as Taddzhetdin al-Bulgary, Khodzha Bulgary, Kul Galy were well-known in Eastern countries.
“Bulgar filigree” won the recognition in both Eastern and Western countries.
The scientists found numerous items of Bulgar pottery, arrow heads and other details of armament and harness, as well as fragments of watering vessels form the Near East and glass bracelets from Ancient Russia.
Tatar folk art was closely connected with their way of life. To decorate their houses, clothes and other household items Tatar craftsmen used various materials and tools. Tatar ornamental pattern in character is strongly bound with ancient agriculture which had appeared long before the Volga Bulgary came into existence. Still some details of the ornamental patterns bare the traces of even more ancient times, when the nomad ancestors of Tatars of Kazan were raising cattle. These traces show typical for nomad culture kinds of arts, when the ornamental pattern was created on the basis of such techniques as overlay, mosaics on leather and wool, embroidery in chain-stitch and felting.
The process of interosculation and mutual enrichment of 2 ornamental patterns – agricultural and of cattle-raising type, had began long before the first Tatar feudal states came into being. In the process an important role was played by ethnic and cultural relations between ancient Tatars and their neighbors – other agricultural and cattle-raising tribes.
The stability of ornamental patterns which depended on the way of life, customs and traditions of the nation, resulted in original co-existence of ornamental patterns of 2 types – ancient agricultural and cattle-raising one (later they gave birth to a number of independent patterns).