The Kazan University was the cultural and scientific center of the land. Within its precincts there were formed several scientific schools. A.M.Butlerov became the founder of the new school of organic chemistry; his followers V.V.Markovnikov and A.M.Zaitsev continued his researches. The works of M.A.Kovalsky greatly influenced the development of Kazan astronomy school. In 1885 there was opened the first in Russia psycho-physiological laboratory (attached to the University) headed by V.M.Bekhterev. The names of geologists N.A.Golovinsky and A.A.Shtukenberg, mathematician A.V.Vasiliev, physiologists N.O.Kovalevsky and N.A.Mislavsky, ophthalmologist E.V.Adamuk, linguists I.A.Boduen de Curtene and V.A.Bogoroditsky are source of pride for people of Kazan.
In 1874 on the basis of University’s departments there was organized Veterinary Institution, and in 1876 – Kazan higher female courses and Kazan Teachers’ Institution. The primary and secondary schools were also developing.
The Kazan City Museum was opened in 1895. The periodical press was gradually developing – by this time in Kazan there had been published about 10 different newspapers and in Tatar language as well.
Since 1874 in the Kazan City Theatre there performed 3 companies – dramatic, opera and operetta ones. In some of drama and opera performances there stared young Fedor Shalyapin. In 1990-s on the stage of the Kazan City Theatre there acted brilliant V.Kachalov.
The Kazan Art School was opened in 1895.
The Asian print-house the editions of which contributed much to spreading of culture and secular education among Tatar population is still in use. In that period the Tatar book-printing was really flourishing: there about 15 printing-houses in Kazan. The beginning of the XX century was marked by unprecedented heyday of Tatar literature. Gabdulla Tukay, Madzhit Gafury, Derdmend, Gayaz Iskhaky – these are only few of the names that became synonyms of classics in national literature. Rich Tatar merchants, clergy and their relatives for years lived and studied in Turkey, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia. In one of the reports of 1908 sent to the Main press board it was mentioned: “Kazan with its 13 medrese, Tatar newspapers, magazines, book-shops, print-houses and developed book-printing is the enlightenment center for Moslems of all parts of Russia. The Tatars of the Volga region expect Kazan to solve or cover numerous problems and questions of their cultural and religious life”.